Covid placed a pause on the formal renewal of relations between Europe and Africa, but it has also brought new focus to old questions.
Turkey has managed to avoid becoming embroiled in many of Africa’s local political quagmires. Instead, it came with a strong commitment that focused on direct aid, infrastructure and transportation projects, as well as mutually beneficial economic partnerships.
Russia, under Vladimir Putin, has expanded its influence in Libya as a key supporter of Khalifa Haftar’s war. Yet Moscow often operates pragmatically and will surely adapt its strategy as Haftar is losing ground.
The European Commission’s response to the coronavirus faces at least five fundamental challenges – all of which create significant opportunities for Europe.
European countries should try to revive the political approach to resolving the Libya conflict, particularly given that Turkey may want to do so from its current position of strength.
Both national and European identity will be essential to forging foreign policy after the crisis – and to taking on competing claims from sovereigntists.
The Trump administration’s decision to withdraw Patriot anti-missile defense batteries from Saudi Arabia is likely to fuel an already brewing arms race as the kingdom attempts to catch-up with Iran’s nuclear development as well as its space, ballistic missile, and drone capabilities.
Global military spending in 2019 represented 2.2 per cent of the global gross domestic product (GDP), which equates to approximately $249 per person.
Swift positions taken by the AU could be stymied by ongoing conflicts, funding shortfalls and border closures.
As the US prepares to withdraw from Afghanistan, the regional powers of the Middle East will have a chance to expand their spheres of influence to the war-torn country. Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates will soon take their competition to the next level.